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Table 1 A comprehensive selection of effector domains for epigenome editing systems

From: Strategies for precision modulation of gene expression by epigenome editing: an overview

Effect Domain Consequence Reference(s)
Activation VP64
VP16
p65
SAM
VPR
Activates transcription by recruiting a transcription complex and can then recruit histone acetylation as a consequence of the induced transcription. Can recruit p300 to deposit H3K27ac Seipel et al. [52]
Beerli et al. [53]
Konermann et al. [57, 84]
Gilbert et al. [81, 87]
Mali et al. [83]
Perez-Pinera et al. [30]
Kearns et al. [85]
Hu et al. [95]
Tanenbaum et al. [96]
Gao et al. [54]
Chakraborty et al. [90]
Heller et al. [125]
Zalatan et al. [88]
Nihongaki et al. [102]
Polstein and Gersbach [103]
Chavez et al. [97]
Repression KRAB
SID
Tbx3-RD
Represses transcription by preventing transcription complex formation. May also recruit other repressive modifications Margolin et al. [55]
Ayer et al. [56]
Cong et al. [17]
Gilbert et al. [81, 87]
Chen et al. [105]
Kearns et al. [85]
Hu et al. [95]
Ma et al. [59]
Gao et al. [54]
Zalatan et al. [88]
Telese et al. [89]
DNA methylation DNMT3A DNMT3B
M.EcoHK31I
M.HhaI
M.SssI
DNMT3A-3L
Represses transcription Li et al. [63]
Meister et al. [64]
Chaikind et al. [66, 69]
Rivenbark et al. [65]
Siddique et al. [67]
Nunna et al. [68]
Stolzenburg et al. [70]
Kungulovski et al. [71]
Bernstein et al. [76]
DNA demethylation TDG
TET1
TET2
Activates transcription Gregory et al. [72]
Maeder et al. [73]
Chen et al. [78]
H3K9me G9a (EHMT)
Suvar
KYP
GLP
Represses transcription Snowden et al. [61]
Falahi et al. [62]
Konermann et al. [57]
Heller et al. [125]
Kungulovski et al. [71]
Cho et al. [74]
H3K9 demethylation JMJD2B Activates transcription Hu et al. [95]
H3K9 deacetylation Sin3a Represses transcription Konermann et al. [57]
H3K4me2 demethylation LSD1 Also leads to H3K27ac removal; both repress transcription. Ideal for enhancers Mendenhall et al. [75]
Kearns et al. [58]
H3K27me3 NUE Represses transcription Konermann et al. [57]
H3K27 demethylation JMJD3 Activates transcription Hu et al. [95]
H3K27ac p300 Activates transcription. Ideal for enhancers Hu et al. [95]
Hilton et al. [91]
H4K8 deacetylation HDAC8
RPD3
Sir2a
Represses transcription Konermann et al. [57]
H4K20me3 tgSET8 Represses transcription Konermann et al. [57]
Affinity enrichment PrA
FLAG
Locus-specific chromatin enrichment for protein analysis Byrum et al. [109, 113]
Fujita et al. [110, 111]
Waldrip et al. [112]
Cell imaging GFP
Cherry
BFP
Sub-nuclear visualization Chen et al. [46]
Anton et al. [106]
Ma et al. [108]