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Table 1 Examples of genes or loci associated with enhancers, silencers or insulatorsa

From: Enhancers and silencers: an integrated and simple model for their function

Gene/locus Association Type Reference
IgH locus mU element Enhancer [6]
β-globin locus LCR Enhancer [12, 17, 26]
Kit -114 kb Enhancer [72]
Arc promoter eRNA Enhancer [28]
HOXA locus HOTTIP Enhancer [35]
Prostate cancer cells Androgen receptor Enhancer [20]
Sox2 SRR1/2 Enhancer [90]
HO-1 +12.5 kb Enhancer [91]
Progesterone receptor agRNA, miRNA Silencer [39, 41]
Androgen receptor agRNA Silencer [37]
Cyclooxygenase-2 agRNA Silencer [37]
LDL receptor agRNA Silencer [37]
Major vault protein agRNA Silencer [37]
Huntingtin agRNA Silencer [37]
Various target genes Polycomb Silencer [44]
INK4-ARF locus Polycomb Silencer [100]
XOXD locus HOTAIR Silencer [33]
X chromosome Xist Silencer [42]
Chicken β-globin locus 5'HS4 Insulator [92]
ApoB locus 5' end of gene Insulator [93]
Drosophila HOX locus Stalled RNAPs Insulator [53]
Mouse Igf2-H19 locus CTCF Insulator [50]
Dystrophy locus CTCF Insulator [94]
IL-3 CTCF Insulator [57]
GMCSF locus CTCF Insulator [57]
Renin CTCF Insulator [58]
ETNK2 locus CTCF Insulator [58]
CFTR locus CTCF Insulator [95]
c-Myc CTCF Insulator [55]
Chicken α-globin locus CTCF Insulator [96]
  1. aagRNA, antigene RNA; CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; CTCF, CCCTC-binding factor; eRNA, enhancer RNA; IgH, immunoglobulin H; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; RNAP, RNA polymerase.