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Table 3 Phenotypes associated with either loss of KMT1, KMT6 or HP1 in fungal species

From: Loss of EZH2-like or SU(VAR)3–9-like proteins causes simultaneous perturbations in H3K27 and H3K9 tri-methylation and associated developmental defects in the fungus Podospora anserina

Species KMT1 mutant KMT6 mutant HP1 mutant References
Podospora anserina
Growth and development Reduced production of aerial hyphae
Slight growth defect
Delay in resuming vegetative growth
Very poor growth
Less pigmentation
Overproduction of conidia
Misshapped fructification
Defect in spore germination
Reduced production of aerial hyphae
Slight growth defect
This study
Chromatin and regulation ChIP-seq Loss of H3K9me3 Loss of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 Broader H3K9me3 domains
Neurospora crassa
Growth and development Reduced growth
Affected in sexual development
None Reduced growth
Affected in sexual development
Basenko et al. [34]; Freitag et al. [48]; Jamieson et al. [33, 35]; Klocko et al. [36]
Chromatin and regulation
ChIP-seq and Hi-C
Affected in DNA methylation
Relocalization of H3K27me3
Loss of H3K9me3
H3K27me3 relocation and diminution
Loss of H3K27me2/3
Altered in chromosome conformation
Affected in DNA methylation relocation of H3K27me2/3, superimposition with H3K9me3
Fusarium verticilloides
Growth and development Defects in conidiation, perithecium production and fungal virulence
Overpigmentation
N/A N/A Gu et al. [82]
Chromatin and regulation N/A N/A N/A
Fusarium graminearum
Growth and development N/A Growth defects
Sterility
Overpigmentation
Reduced virulence
Overpigmentation Connolly et al. [43]; Reyes-Dominguez et al. [83]
Chromatin and regulation
ChIP-seq
N/A Loss of H3K27me3
Constitutive expression of genes encoding mycotoxins pigments-producing enzymes and other SM
Enhanced activity of activity of biosynthetic cluster genes
Epichloë festucae
Growth and development Reduced vegetative growth
Deregulation of symbiosis
Deregulation of symbiosis Deregulation of symbiosis Chujo and Scott [42]; Chujo et al. [84]
Chromatin and regulation
ChIP-qPCR
Derepression of symbiosis-specific alkaloid genes clusters Derepression of symbiosis-specific alkaloid genes clusters Derepression of symbiosis-specific alkaloid genes clusters
Magnaporthe oryzae
Growth and development Reduced vegetative growth
Reduced virulence
Reduced vegetative growth
Severe reduction in conidiation
Slight defects in appressorium formation
Reduction in pathogenicity
N/A Pham et al. [46]
Chromatin and regulation
WB
Loss of H3K9me3 Loss of H3K27me3 N/A
Zymoseptoria tritici
Growth and development Reduced vegetative growth
Reduced virulence
Reduced virulence N/A Möller et al. [45]
Chromatin and regulation
ChIP-seq
Loss of H3K9me3
TE activation and genomic rearrangements
H3K27me3 relocation
Reduction of H3K27me3
Loss of H3K27me3
Increased stability of accessory chromosomes
N/A
Aspergillus nidulans
Growth and development No developmental phenotype N/A No developmental phenotype Reyes-Dominguez et al. [85]
Chromatin and regulation Enhanced expression of a subset of secondary metabolite (SM) clusters N/A Enhanced expression of a subset of secondary metabolite (SM) clusters
Aspergillus fumigatus
Growth and development Reduced vegetative growth delayed conidiation N/A Reduced vegetative growth and delayed conidiation Palmer et al. [86]
Chromatin and regulation N/A N/A N/A
Leptosphaeria maculans
Growth and development Reduced vegetative growth
Reduced virulence
N/A Reduced vegetative growth Soyer et al. [87]
Chromatin and regulation
ChIP-seq (WT only)
Up-regulation of pathogenicity-related genes N/A Up-regulation of pathogenicity-related genes
Penicillium oxalicum
Growth and development N/A N/A Reduced vegetative growth
Delayed conidiation
Zhang et al. [88]
Chromatin and regulation N/A N/A N/A
  1. Growth and development: macroscopic major defects caused by the specified mutant allele. Chromatin and regulation: H3K9me3 or H3K27me3 modification status in the mutant background and major impact on regulation of gene expression. Techniques used to characterize chromatin status are listed. ChIP-seq: chromatin immune-precipitation followed by sequencing, Hi-C: genome-wide chromosome conformation capture followed by sequencing, WB: Western blot