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Table 4 Implications of CS-related microRNAs on inflammation

From: The role of cigarette smoke-induced epigenetic alterations in inflammation

miRNAsChanges by CSFunctions on inflammationMechanismDiseaseReferencesYear
Let-7cDownregulation [80, 82]Anti-inflammationSuppress NF-κB signaling
Suppress STAT3 signaling
Endometritis
COPD
Zhao et al. [181]
Yu et al. [182]
2019
2016
miR-16Upregulation [196]Pro-inflammationUpregulated by NF-κBGastric cancerShin et al. [196] 
miR-21Upregulation [195, 196]Pro-inflammationUpregulated by NF-κBGastric cancerShin et al. [196] 
miR-24Downregulation [194]Anti-inflammationSuppress TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κBIPFEbrahimpour et al. [194]2019
miR-29bDownregulation [195]Anti-inflammationReduce VEGF-A expression; meanwhile upregulated by NF-κB inhibitorBreast cancerMalik et al. [195]2018
miR-30Downregulation [80, 82]Anti-inflammationInhibit NF-κBN/AIzzotti et al. [80]2009
miR-132Downregulation [175]Anti-inflammationRepress SOCS5 expressionCOPDDiao et al. [175]2018
miR-135bUpregulation [183]Anti-inflammationUpregulated by IL-1R1 and directly targets IL-1R1 in a negative regulatory feedback loopN/AHalappanavar et al. [183]2013
miR-145Downregulation [187]Anti-inflammationSuppress Kruppel-like 5 and NF-κBCOPDDang et al. [187]2019
miR-146aDownregulation [80]Anti-inflammationReduce CS-induced COX-2 production.N/AZago et al. [180] 
miR-149Downregulation [188]Anti-inflammationInhibit the TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathwayCOPDShen et al. [188]2017
miR-150Downregulation [189]Anti-inflammationInactivate NF-κBCOPDXue et al. [189]2018
miR-181Downregulation [190]Anti-inflammationInhibit CCN1COPDDu et al. [190]2017
miR-195Upregulation [176]Pro-inflammation
Anti-inflammation
Elevate Akt phosphorylation by suppressing PHLPP2 expression
Inhibit NF-κB and JNK signaling by repressing Smad7
COPD
Ulcerative colitis
Gu et al. [176]
Chen et al. [177]
2018
2015
miR-200Downregulation [197]Anti-inflammationSuppressed by NF-κBLung cancerZhao et al. [197]2013
miR-212Downregulation [191]Anti-inflammationPromote the phosphorylation of Akt.COPDJia et al. [191]2018
miR-218Downregulation [192]Anti-inflammationInactivate NF-κBCOPDConickx et al. [192]2017
miR-223Downregulation [80]
Upregulation [186]
Anti-inflammation
Pro-inflammation
Inhibit NF-κB by targeting IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1
Downregulate NLRP3
Suppress HDAC2
Low back pain
Inflammatory bowel disease
COPD
Wang et al. [184]
Neudecker et al. [185]
Leuenberger et al. [186]
2018
2017
2016
miR-320N/AAnti-inflammationInhibit NF-κBCOPDFaiz et al. [198]2019
  1. CCN1 a member of CCN family, IPF idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, PHLPP2 PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2, STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, TLR toll-like receptor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor. JNK c-Jun N-terminal kinase