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Table 4 Implications of CS-related microRNAs on inflammation

From: The role of cigarette smoke-induced epigenetic alterations in inflammation

miRNAs Changes by CS Functions on inflammation Mechanism Disease References Year
Let-7c Downregulation [80, 82] Anti-inflammation Suppress NF-κB signaling
Suppress STAT3 signaling
Endometritis
COPD
Zhao et al. [181]
Yu et al. [182]
2019
2016
miR-16 Upregulation [196] Pro-inflammation Upregulated by NF-κB Gastric cancer Shin et al. [196]  
miR-21 Upregulation [195, 196] Pro-inflammation Upregulated by NF-κB Gastric cancer Shin et al. [196]  
miR-24 Downregulation [194] Anti-inflammation Suppress TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB IPF Ebrahimpour et al. [194] 2019
miR-29b Downregulation [195] Anti-inflammation Reduce VEGF-A expression; meanwhile upregulated by NF-κB inhibitor Breast cancer Malik et al. [195] 2018
miR-30 Downregulation [80, 82] Anti-inflammation Inhibit NF-κB N/A Izzotti et al. [80] 2009
miR-132 Downregulation [175] Anti-inflammation Repress SOCS5 expression COPD Diao et al. [175] 2018
miR-135b Upregulation [183] Anti-inflammation Upregulated by IL-1R1 and directly targets IL-1R1 in a negative regulatory feedback loop N/A Halappanavar et al. [183] 2013
miR-145 Downregulation [187] Anti-inflammation Suppress Kruppel-like 5 and NF-κB COPD Dang et al. [187] 2019
miR-146a Downregulation [80] Anti-inflammation Reduce CS-induced COX-2 production. N/A Zago et al. [180]  
miR-149 Downregulation [188] Anti-inflammation Inhibit the TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway COPD Shen et al. [188] 2017
miR-150 Downregulation [189] Anti-inflammation Inactivate NF-κB COPD Xue et al. [189] 2018
miR-181 Downregulation [190] Anti-inflammation Inhibit CCN1 COPD Du et al. [190] 2017
miR-195 Upregulation [176] Pro-inflammation
Anti-inflammation
Elevate Akt phosphorylation by suppressing PHLPP2 expression
Inhibit NF-κB and JNK signaling by repressing Smad7
COPD
Ulcerative colitis
Gu et al. [176]
Chen et al. [177]
2018
2015
miR-200 Downregulation [197] Anti-inflammation Suppressed by NF-κB Lung cancer Zhao et al. [197] 2013
miR-212 Downregulation [191] Anti-inflammation Promote the phosphorylation of Akt. COPD Jia et al. [191] 2018
miR-218 Downregulation [192] Anti-inflammation Inactivate NF-κB COPD Conickx et al. [192] 2017
miR-223 Downregulation [80]
Upregulation [186]
Anti-inflammation
Pro-inflammation
Inhibit NF-κB by targeting IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1
Downregulate NLRP3
Suppress HDAC2
Low back pain
Inflammatory bowel disease
COPD
Wang et al. [184]
Neudecker et al. [185]
Leuenberger et al. [186]
2018
2017
2016
miR-320 N/A Anti-inflammation Inhibit NF-κB COPD Faiz et al. [198] 2019
  1. CCN1 a member of CCN family, IPF idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, PHLPP2 PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2, STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, TLR toll-like receptor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor. JNK c-Jun N-terminal kinase