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Table 3 Studies reporting aberrant HATs/HDACs induced by CS in inflammation

From: The role of cigarette smoke-induced epigenetic alterations in inflammation

HATs/HDACs Changes by CS Functions on inflammation Mechanism Disease References Year
CBP/p300 Upregulation [50] Pro-inflammation Increase acetylation of histones (H3/H4) and NF-κB COPD Rajendrasozhan et al. [126] 2009
HDAC1 Downregulation [37] Anti-inflammation Decrease level of acetylated H3K9 COPD Chen et al. [37] 2015
HDAC2 Downregulation [29, 30, 38] Anti-inflammation Inhibit IL-17A
Suppress the phosphorylation of Akt
Inhibit NF-κB
COPD
Asthma
COPD
Lai et al. [127]
Xia et al. [128]
To et al. [129]
2018
2018
2017
HDAC3 Downregulation [39, 40] Anti-inflammation Repress synthesis of NF-κB -driven inflammatory cytokine COPD Winkler et al. [40] 2012
HDAC4 Downregulation [38] Anti-inflammation Repress c-Jun and IL-17A COPD Lu et al. [134] 2015
HDAC5 Downregulation [29, 30] Pro-inflammation Activate NF-κB Chronic inflammatory diseases Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia Poralla et al. [135]
Zhao et al. [136]
2015
2019
HDAC6 Upregulation [41]
Activation [42]
Pro-inflammation Promote the increase of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression and activate NF-κB by inducing IĸB phosphorylation
Promote the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK
Acute lung injury
Brain inflammation
Liu et al. [137]
Song et al. [138]
2019
2019
HDAC7 Downregulation [35] Anti-inflammation Increase histone deacetylation of memory T lymphocytes Asthma Zhang et al. [139] 2015
HDAC8 Downregulation [29, 30] Anti-inflammation
Pro-inflammation
Promote the acetylation modification of IFNβ1 promoter, thus selectively increasing innate IFN-β production
Increase the production of IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6
Asthma
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Meng et al. [140]
Li et al. [141]
2016
2015
HDAC9 N/A Anti-inflammation Increase histone deacetylation of memory T lymphocytes Asthma Zhang et al. [139] 2015
HDAC10 Downregulation [36] Anti-inflammation Increase histone deacetylation of memory T lymphocytes Asthma Zhang et al. [139] 2015
HDAC11 N/A Anti-inflammation Increase histone deacetylation of memory T lymphocytes Asthma Zhang et al. [139] 2015
SIRT1 Downregulation [43] Anti-inflammation Deacetylate the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-κβ and attenuate NF-κB-mediated gene transcription Chronic inflammatory diseases Schug et al. [145] 2010
SIRT2 N/A Anti-inflammation Deacetylate the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-κB at Lys310 and inhibit NF-κβ signaling Inflammatory bowel disease Lo et al. [146] 2014
SIRT3 Downregulation [46] Anti-inflammation Ameliorate NLRP3 inflammasome activation
Decrease the expression levels of NF-κB, HMGB1, c-Jun, c-Fos, COX2, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6
Hyperlipidaemia
Chronic kidney disease
Liu et al. [148]
Qiao et al. [149]
2018
2018
SIRT4 Downregulation [47] Anti-inflammation Suppress NF-κB activating via inhibiting the degradation of IκBα COPD Chen et al. [47] 2014
SIRT5 Downregulation [48] Pro-inflammation Compete with SIRT2 to interact with NF-κB p65 to block the deacetylation of p65 by SIRT2, leading to increased acetylation of p65 and the activation of NF-κB pathway Sepsis Qin et al. [151] 2017
SIRT6 Downregulation [49] Anti-inflammation Interact with p65/RelA bound to the NF-κβ promoter region and repress transcriptional activity Inflammatory vascular diseases Lappas M. [147] 2012
SIRT7 N/A Anti-inflammation Deacetylate p53, leading to inactivation of p53 Heart diseases Vakhrusheva et al. [150] 2008
  1. CBP cAMP-response element binding protein, COX2 cyclooxygenase-2, CS cigarette smoke, HAT histone acetyltransferases, HDACs histone deacetylases, HMGB1 high mobility group box 1, IFNβ1 interferon beta 1, IκBα inhibitory kappa B kinase α, IL interleukin, NLRP3 NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3, SIRT sirtuin