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Table 2 The role of CS-induced aberrant DNA methylation in inflammation

From: The role of cigarette smoke-induced epigenetic alterations in inflammation

Genes/CpG sitesChanges by CSFunctions on inflammationMechanismDiseaseReferencesYear
RUNX3Hypermethylation [107]Pro-inflammationAssociated with the level of CRPCOPDSiedlinski et al. [107]2012
JAK3Hypermethylation [107]Pro-inflammationAssociated with the level of CRPCOPDSiedlinski et al. [107]2012
KRT1Hypermethylation [107]Pro-inflammationAssociated with the level of CRPCOPDSiedlinski et al. [107]2012
cg18181703 in SOCS3N/AAnti-inflammationHypomethylation of the CpG site was associated with higher CRP levelsCHDLigthart et al. [108]2016
cg06126421 in TUBBN/AAnti-inflammationHypomethylation of the CpG site was associated with higher CRP levelsCHDLigthart et al. [108]2016
cg05575921 in AHRRHypomethylation [109]Anti-inflammationHypomethylation of the CpG site was associated with higher CRP levelsCHDLigthart et al. [108]2016
cg03636183 in F2RL3Hypomethylation [110]Pro-inflammationIncrease IL-18 levelsHypertensionJhun et al. [110]2017
DNMT1Upregulation [27]Pro-inflammationIncrease methylation level of the PPAR-γ promoter and reduce expression of PPAR-γAtherosclerosisYu et al. [113]2016
DNMT1Upregulation [27]Pro-inflammationRegulates IL-6 and TGFβ1; meanwhile, be activated by IL-6 and TGFβBenign prostatic hyperplasiaXu et al. [117]2017
DNMT1Upregulation [27]Pro-inflammationBe activated by IL-1β via MAPK and NF-κB pathways.Benign meningiomasWang et al. [118]2016
TET1N/APro-inflammationTET1 knockdown reduced IL-6 and TNF-α levels through downregulating NF-κB signaling pathwayPeriodontal diseasesHuang et al. [119]2019
TET2N/APro-inflammationActivate the NF-κB signaling pathwayDental pulp inflammationWang et al. [120]2018
  1. AML acute myeloid leukemia, ARHH aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, CHD coronary heart disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRP C-reactive protein, DNMT DNA methyltransferase, F2RL3 coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3 gene, JAK3 Janus kinase 3, KRT1 keratin 1, MAPK mitogen‐activated protein kinase, NF-κB nuclear factor kappa B, PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, RUNX3 runt-related transcription factor 3, SOCS3 suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, TET Tet-eleven translocation protein, TGFβ transforming growth factor beta 1, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor α, TUBB tubulin beta