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Table 2 The role of CS-induced aberrant DNA methylation in inflammation

From: The role of cigarette smoke-induced epigenetic alterations in inflammation

Genes/CpG sites Changes by CS Functions on inflammation Mechanism Disease References Year
RUNX3 Hypermethylation [107] Pro-inflammation Associated with the level of CRP COPD Siedlinski et al. [107] 2012
JAK3 Hypermethylation [107] Pro-inflammation Associated with the level of CRP COPD Siedlinski et al. [107] 2012
KRT1 Hypermethylation [107] Pro-inflammation Associated with the level of CRP COPD Siedlinski et al. [107] 2012
cg18181703 in SOCS3 N/A Anti-inflammation Hypomethylation of the CpG site was associated with higher CRP levels CHD Ligthart et al. [108] 2016
cg06126421 in TUBB N/A Anti-inflammation Hypomethylation of the CpG site was associated with higher CRP levels CHD Ligthart et al. [108] 2016
cg05575921 in AHRR Hypomethylation [109] Anti-inflammation Hypomethylation of the CpG site was associated with higher CRP levels CHD Ligthart et al. [108] 2016
cg03636183 in F2RL3 Hypomethylation [110] Pro-inflammation Increase IL-18 levels Hypertension Jhun et al. [110] 2017
DNMT1 Upregulation [27] Pro-inflammation Increase methylation level of the PPAR-γ promoter and reduce expression of PPAR-γ Atherosclerosis Yu et al. [113] 2016
DNMT1 Upregulation [27] Pro-inflammation Regulates IL-6 and TGFβ1; meanwhile, be activated by IL-6 and TGFβ Benign prostatic hyperplasia Xu et al. [117] 2017
DNMT1 Upregulation [27] Pro-inflammation Be activated by IL-1β via MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Benign meningiomas Wang et al. [118] 2016
TET1 N/A Pro-inflammation TET1 knockdown reduced IL-6 and TNF-α levels through downregulating NF-κB signaling pathway Periodontal diseases Huang et al. [119] 2019
TET2 N/A Pro-inflammation Activate the NF-κB signaling pathway Dental pulp inflammation Wang et al. [120] 2018
  1. AML acute myeloid leukemia, ARHH aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, CHD coronary heart disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRP C-reactive protein, DNMT DNA methyltransferase, F2RL3 coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3 gene, JAK3 Janus kinase 3, KRT1 keratin 1, MAPK mitogen‐activated protein kinase, NF-κB nuclear factor kappa B, PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, RUNX3 runt-related transcription factor 3, SOCS3 suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, TET Tet-eleven translocation protein, TGFβ transforming growth factor beta 1, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor α, TUBB tubulin beta