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Table 1 The changes of DNA methylation profiles affected by CS

From: The role of cigarette smoke-induced epigenetic alterations in inflammation

Sample sizePopulationTissue for DNA methylation analysisSmoking statusMain resultReferencesYear
596Chinese populationWhole bloodCurrent smoke318 CpG sites were differentially methylated due to cigarette smoking.Zhu et al. [15]2016
745European womenWhole bloodCurrent smoke461 CpG sites were aberrant methylated due to cigarette smoking. Of them, 448 CpG sites were hypomethylatedGuida et al. [16]2015
   Former smokeThe methylation of 751 CpG sites were changed the recoded smoking status. Of them, 602 CpG sites reverted back to that of never smokers from up to 35 years after smoking cessation. 149 CpG sites remained differentially methylated > 35 years after smoking  
123Arab populationWhole bloodCurrent smokeAberrant methylation was detected due to tobacco smoking. The exact number of CpG sites was not mentionedZaghlool et al. [17]2015
111African American womenPeripheral blood mononuclear cellsCurrent smoke910 loci were found to be differentially methylated in smokersDogan et al. [18]2014
192South Asian and European menWhole bloodCurrent smoke29 CpG sites at 18 unique loci were differential methylated in smokersElliott et al. [19]2014
180Italian populationPeripheral white blood cellsCurrent smoke/former smoke17 and 19 loci in the breast cancer and colon cancer were differentially methylated between smokers, former smokers and never smokers. In former smokers, methylation levels at AHRR, 2q37 and 6p21 loci returned to the levels of nonsmokers with increasing time from cessation and those who had smoked more intensively had methylation levels that were closer to that of current smokersShenker et al. [20]2013
1793Augsburg populationWhole bloodCurrent smoke/FORMER smoke972 CpG sites were differentially methylated after smoking. Of which, 187 CpG sites were differentially methylated in current smokers.Zeilinger et al. [21]2013
98African AmericansLymphocyte cellsCurrent smokeAberrant methylation was detected due to tobacco smoking. The authors listed 30 most significant methylated CpG sites without mentioning the exact number of methylated CpG sitesPhilibert et al. [22]2013
972African AmericansPeripheral leukocytesCurrent smoke15 autosomal DNAm sites were significantly associated with current smoking using a Bonferroni corrected p value of 0.05. 89 DNAm sites associated with current smoking with FDR q value less than 0.05Sun et al. [23]2013
20Hispanic newbornsCD4+ cells from cord bloodIn utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoke10,381 CpG sites were differentially methylated by tobacco smoking. Of them, 557 differentially methylated regions were overrepresented in important regulatory regions, including enhancersHowe et al. [24]2019
1062 Norwegian newbornsCord bloodIn utero exposure to maternal tobacco smokeDifferential DNA methylation of 26 CpG sites mapped to 10 genes were found in newborns born to smoking mothers compared to nonsmoking mothersJoubert et al. [25]2012
1042Norwegian newbornsCord bloodIn utero exposure to maternal tobacco smokeMaternal smoking affected DNA methylation of 26 CpG sites that mapped to 10 genes in newborn cord blood if the mother smokes past 18 weeks in pregnancy, whereas significant effects on methylation were not observed for mothers that quit before 18 gestational weeksJoubert et al. [26]2014