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Fig. 1 | Epigenetics & Chromatin

Fig. 1

From: Age reprogramming and epigenetic rejuvenation

Fig. 1

(e)Age reprogramming using iPS reprogramming factors. a Schematic depiction of the experiment by Manukyan and Singh [20]. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that the mobility of the epigenetic modifier, HP1β, in senescent HDFs (blue) transduced with OSKML reprogramming factors reached levels found in young HDFs (red) on day 9 after transduction (highlighted with the yellow surround). Epigenetic rejuvenation of HP1β mobility is transient and returns to that found in senescent cells on day 12. b Schematic depiction of the in silico analysis by Olova et al. [26]. Between days 3 and 7 post-transduction of HDFs (eAge ~ 65 years) with OSKM reprogramming factors, eAge (purple line) declines at a steady rate with a gradient (purple dotted line) of 3.8 years per day and falls to zero by day 20. Analysis of the expression of three fibroblast-specific gene clusters, F1, F2 and F3 (given in grey), showed that two (F2 and F3) declined immediately and then plateaued between days 7 and 15. The F1 cluster remained stable over the first 15 days. A red dotted line passes through day 10, when there has been a substantial decrease in eAge that continues to fall, while the expression levels of F1, F2 and F3 remain on a plateau. After day 15, the expression of all three clusters declined with the extinguishing of the F1 cluster at day 35. The increase in expression of a cluster of pluripotency genes (green) showed that they reach steady-state levels only after eAge had reached zero. The genes in the early pluripotency gene cluster and fibroblast-specific gene clusters F1, F2 and F3 are listed in Table 1 of Olova et al. [26]. c Schematic showing that kinetics of eAge and developmental reprogramming are different [26]. eAge reprogramming has fallen to zero by day 20. Fibroblast gene expression is extinguished on day 35 and marks loss of fibroblast identity, whereupon an iPS cell molecular identity is established. The red dotted line corresponds to that which is described in b

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