Proportion of housekeeping genes contributing toward key biological processes. These processes have the top 100 TF-to-HM+DNase (TF) and HM+DNase-to-TF (HM+DNase) adjusted R2 ratios for (a) mESCs and (b) GM12878 cells. The proportion of housekeeping genes is significantly larger for the TF group in both cases (Welch’s t-test (a) P < 2.2 × 10-16 and (b) P < 2.6 × 10-6). This suggests that TF binding provides more information regarding the transcriptional regulatory state of mammalian biological processes enriched for housekeeping genes and conversely that HMs and DNase provide more information for tissue and context-sensitive processes. HM, histone modification; TF, transcription factor; TFAS, transcription factor association strength.