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Table 1 Varying genes and known mechanisms of variation in different pathogens

From: Parasite epigenetics and immune evasion: lessons from budding yeast

Species Varying genes (number of genes given in parentheses) Mechanisms involved in gene variation Reference(s)
Trypanosoma brucei VSG (>1,000) Epigenetic switches, DNA recombination [3]
Pneumocystis carinii MSG (160) DNA recombination [5, 6]
Plasmodium falciparum VAR (60), rifin (150 to 200), and stevor (30 to 35) Epigenetic switches [710]
Candida glabrata EPA (23) Epigenetic switches [2, 11]
Giardia lamblia VSP (220) RNA interference [1214]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Various subtelomeric genes Epigenetic switches [15, 16]
S. cerevisiae Mating type loci (HMR α and HMLα) DNA recombination [17]