H4G94P nucleosomes are less effectively remodeled by chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1 (Chd1) or d-ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor (ACF) than wild-type (WT) nucleosomes. (A) 12 nM nucleosome core particles (NCPs) were incubated with 5 nM dACF and/or 1 nM Chd1 for 120 minutes. Wild-type nucleosomes are shifted equally well in the presence of dACF or Chd1, or the two proteins in combination. G94P nucleosomes cannot be fully shifted by either of the proteins or the combination. (B) 12 nM NCPs were incubated with 1 nM Chd1 for the stated time points. Chd1 fully slides 50 % of the WT NCP after 120 minutes. Only a small percentage of the G94P NCP is fully shifted after 120 minutes. Far right lane, WT NCP reaction in the absence of ATP.