The effect of a CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) proximal (cp)-transcription initiation (ti)RNA sponge on StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 13 ( STARD13 ). (a) The effect of the STARD13 sponge on CTCF at the CTCF binding site. (b) The effects the STARD13 cp-tiRNA sponge on mRNA expression. Experiments were standardized to pCDNA transfected MCF-7 cells. (c) The effects of the p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A gene, also known as CDKN1A) cp-tiRNA and STARD13 tiRNA sponges on nucleosomal positioning based on histone H3 localization. (a-c) Samples were analyzed as indicated 72 h post transfection. The averages of triplicate transfected samples are shown with the error bars representative of the standard errors of the means, and P values from paired t tests. (a, c) No antibody values were subtracted from each IP, and the resultant values were standardized to the input for each sample.